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Definition of the French International Internship Programme
KudoZ activity Questions: none open 65 closed without grading Answers: 7. Grading comment 4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer. Discussion entries: 6. I don't have the entire document. There's is just that one reference.
I know, makes it more of a challenge. Have you the entire document? I assume it's a court order?
If so, there must be some other rference to the "intervenants volontaires" - at the very least a recital of their names. CPC, arts. This is a term which has specific meaning within the context of civil procedure, here with regard to "mesures probabtoires". That is where the clue lies to how this is to be read in this context. I have to leave my office now, but this should help to get you on track. I suppose your context does give you clues to the nature of the "mesures probabtoires".
That is likely to help this make sense, probably the key, in fact. Bon aprem!
See reference post. It's France. I don't have the entire document, and there's no further reference to the intervenants. An "intervenant" can sometimes be a participant, but not always. In some situations an "intervenant" would be someone presenting something and the "participant" would be someone visiting to see what is being presented. Sometimes the "intervenant" can be accurately conveyed by the term "participant". Here, it does seem to be referring to people who have provided information directly in some way or another, with regard to the "mesures probatoires" and along the same lines as the applicants.
Could we have more information please? Is this France or Belgium? Automatic update in Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer. Amicus Curiae. Peer comments on this reference comment and responses from the reference poster. Return to KudoZ list. You have native languages that can be verified You can request verification for native languages by completing a simple application that takes only a couple of minutes. View applications. Close and don't show again Close. Close search.
Term search Jobs Translators Clients Forums. Term search All of ProZ. French term or phrase:. French term or phrase: intervenants volontaires. I can guess at the meaning of this from context, but I'm unable to find a translation of the phrase anywhere. Local time: Explanation: These are parties who are applying to be joined to a lawsuit. The short piece of text doesn't say in what capacity e. Joining as a Party - Courts Administration Authority www. Once a person is joined as a party they become a full Court of Protection.
Please read first. The provisions of this rule for the joinder of parties are Rule Nikki Scott-Despaigne. Ben Gaia. Francois Boye. B D Finch. AllegroTrans United Kingdom. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer disagree. AllegroTrans : not a court procedure term and not appropriate here in any event. Since freedom is our natural state, we are not only in possession of it but have the urge to defend it. Now, if perchance some cast a doubt on this conclusion and are so corrupted that they are not able to recognize their rights and inborn tendencies, I shall have to do them the honor that is properly theirs and place, so to speak, brute beasts in the pulpit to throw light on their nature and condition.
The very beasts, God help me!
If the animals were to constitute their kingdom by rank, their nobility would be chosen from this type. Others, from the largest to the smallest, when captured put up such a strong resistance by means of claws, horns, beak, and paws, that they show clearly enough how they cling to what they are losing; afterwards in captivity they manifest by so many evident signs their awareness of their misfortune, that it is easy to see they are languishing rather than living, and continue their existence more in lamentation of their lost freedom than in enjoyment of their servitude.
What else can explain the behavior of the elephant who, after defending himself to the last ounce of his strength and knowing himself on the point of being taken, dashes his jaws against the trees and breaks his tusks, thus manifesting his longing to remain free as he has been and proving his wit and ability to buy off the huntsmen in the hope that through the sacrifice of his tusks he will be permitted to offer his ivory as a ransom for his liberty? We feed the horse from birth in order to train him to do our bidding. Yet he is tamed with such difficulty that when we begin to break him in he bites the bit, he rears at the touch of the spur, as if to reveal his instinct and show by his actions that, if he obeys, he does so not of his own free will but under constraint.
What more can we say? For I shall not hesitate in writing to you, O Longa,  to introduce some of my verses, which I never read to you because of your obvious encouragement which is quite likely to make me conceited. And now, since all beings, because they feel, suffer misery in subjection and long for liberty; since the very beasts, although made for the service of man, cannot become accustomed to control without protest, what evil chance has so denatured man that he, the only creature really born to be free, lacks the memory of his original condition and the desire to return to it?
There are three kinds of tyrants; some receive their proud position through elections by the people, others by force of arms, others by inheritance. Those who have acquired power by means of war act in such wise that it is evident they rule over a conquered country. Those who are born to kingship are scarcely any better, because they are nourished on the breast of tyranny, suck in with their milk the instincts of the tyrant, and consider the people under them as their inherited serfs; and according to their individual disposition, miserly or prodigal, they treat their kingdom as their property.
He who has received the state from the people, however, ought to be, it seems to me, more bearable and would be so, I think, were it not for the fact that as soon as he sees himself higher than the others, flattered by that quality which we call grandeur, he plans never to relinquish his position. Such a man usually determines to pass on to his children the authority that the people have conferred upon him; and once his heirs have taken this attitude, strange it is how far they surpass other tyrants in all sorts of vices, and especially in cruelty, because they find no other means to impose this new tyranny than by tightening control and removing their subjects so far from any notion of liberty that even if the memory of it is fresh it will soon be eradicated.
Yet, to speak accurately, I do perceive that there is some difference among these three types of tyranny, but as for stating a preference, I cannot grant there is any. For although the means of coming into power differ, still the method of ruling is practically the same; those who are elected act as if they were breaking in bullocks; those who are conquerors make the people their prey; those who are heirs plan to treat them as if they were their natural slaves.
In connection with this, let us imagine some newborn individuals, neither acquainted with slavery nor desirous of liberty, ignorant indeed of the very words. If they were permitted to choose between being slaves and free men, to which would they give their vote? There can be no doubt that they would much prefer to be guided by reason itself than to be ordered about by the whims of a single man. The only possible exception might be the Israelites who, without any compulsion or need, appointed a tyrant.
But certainly all men, as long as they remain men, before letting themselves become enslaved must either be driven by force or led into it by deception; conquered by foreign armies, as were Sparta and Athens by the forces of Alexander  or by political factions, as when at an earlier period the control of Athens had passed into the hands of Pisistrates. This was the case with the people of Syracuse, chief city of Sicily I am told the place is now named Saragossa  when, in the throes of war and heedlessly planning only for the present danger, they promoted Denis,  their first tyrant, by entrusting to him the command of the army, without realizing that they had given him such power that on his victorious return this worthy man would behave as if he had vanquished not his enemies but his compatriots, transforming himself from captain to king, and then from king to tyrant.
It is incredible how as soon as a people becomes subject, it promptly falls into such complete forgetfulness of its freedom that it can hardly be roused to the point of regaining it, obeying so easily and so willingly that one is led to say, on beholding such a situation, that this people has not so much lost its liberty as won its enslavement.
It is true that in the beginning men submit under constraint and by force; but those who come after them obey without regret and perform willingly what their predecessors had done because they had to. This is why men born under the yoke and then nourished and reared in slavery are content, without further effort, to live in their native circumstance, unaware of any other state or right, and considering as quite natural the condition into which they were born.
ignamant.cl/wp-includes/30/2906-localizar-un.php There is, however, no heir so spendthrift or indifferent that he does not sometimes scan the account books of his father in order to see if he is enjoying all the privileges of his legacy or whether, perchance, his rights and those of his predecessor have not been encroached upon. Nevertheless it is clear enough that the powerful influence of custom is in no respect more compelling than in this, namely, habituation to subjection.
It is said that Mithridates  trained himself to drink poison. Like him we learn to swallow, and not to find bitter, the venom of servitude. It cannot be denied that nature is influential in shaping us to her will and making us reveal our rich or meager endowment; yet it must be admitted that she has less power over us than custom, for the reason that native endowment, no matter how good, is dissipated unless encouraged, whereas environment always shapes us in its own way, whatever that may be, in spite of nature's gifts.
The good seed that nature plants in us is so slight and so slippery that it cannot withstand the least harm from wrong nourishment; it flourishes less easily, becomes spoiled, withers, and comes to nothing. Fruit trees retain their own particular quality if permitted to grow undisturbed, but lose it promptly and bear strange fruit not their own when ingrafted.
Every herb has its peculiar characteristics, its virtues and properties; yet frost, weather, soil, or the gardener's hand increase or diminish its strength; the plant seen in one spot cannot be recognized in another. Whoever could have observed the early Venetians,  a handful of people living so freely that the most wicked among them would not wish to be king over them, so born and trained that they would not vie with one another except as to which one could give the best counsel and nurture their liberty most carefully, so instructed and developed from their cradles that they would not exchange for all the other delights of the world an iota of their freedom; who, I say, familiar with the original nature of such a people, could visit today the territories of the man known as the Great Doge, and there contemplate with composure a people unwilling to live except to serve him, and maintaining his power at the cost of their lives?
Who would believe that these two groups of people had an identical origin? Would one not rather conclude that upon leaving a city of men he had chanced upon a menagerie of beasts? Lycurgus,  the lawgiver of Sparta, is reported to have reared two dogs of the same litter by fattening one in the kitchen and training the other in the fields to the sound of the bugle and the horn, thereby to demonstrate to the Lacedaemonians that men, too, develop according to their early habits.
He set the two dogs in the open market place, and between them he placed a bowl of soup and a hare. One ran to the bowl of soup, the other to the hare; yet they were, as he maintained, born brothers of the same parents. In such manner did this leader, by his laws and customs, shape and instruct the Spartans so well that any one of them would sooner have died than acknowledge any sovereign other than law and reason.
It gives me pleasure to recall a conversation of the olden time between one of the favorites of Xerxes, the great king of Persia, and two Lacedaemonians. When Xerxes  equipped his great army to conquer Greece, he sent his ambassadors into the Greek cities to ask for water and earth.
Related Volontaire désigné (French Edition)
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