British engagement in Palestine and the upsurge in Zionism in the region were the results of war and international turmoil during the early 20th century. In , British troops had occupied many former Ottoman Middle Eastern territories. Following the defeat of the Central Powers on November 11th , many of the lands ruled by the waning Ottoman Empire, came under the control of the victorious Allied powers.
British control over Palestine was marked by several years of military rule during and after the war, eventually leading to the creation of an imperial civilian government in The Mandate System was established under the auspices of the League of Nations. Touted as international stewardship, in reality the system was a tool in Franco-Anglo imperial expansion.
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- Lebenserinnerungen und Denkschriften (German Edition).
- The Hope Fulfilled;
The Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire posed a legal challenge to Britain and France, for whereas African and Asiatic populations were considered primitive, the Arabs while not Western, were recognized as a distinguished and ancient, if backward race. Britain exercised wide ranging control over Palestinian life, a fact which did not change following the inception of civilian rule in During WWI and in the immediate post war years, Britain envisioned Palestine as a pluralistic society, a worldview greatly shaped by the Balfour Declaration. Penned by British Foreign Secretary A.
Balfour, the Balfour Declaration introduced the notion of a Jewish homeland in Palestine into British colonial considerations. Indeed, such pro-Zionist overtures by Britain unsurprisingly led to strong resistance from Palestinian Arabs. This paper shall highlight and extrapolate on the tripartite of British, Jewish and Arab political aspirations in Palestine during the s and s. Specifically, this essay will focus on the evolution of Zionist and Arab nationalist aspirations and political organization under the aegis of British rule.
The notion of a re-emergent Jewish state in Palestine, seemed to many, especially in Palestine as farcical. A Jewish state had not existed for two millenia, and demographically, Jews constituted the smallest faction, comprising less than ten per cent of the population in The Zionist movement in Palestine was headed by a largely homogenous group of Eastern European and Russian Jews who emigrated soon after the war during Whereas the restoration of Israel and Zionist aspirations were a key aspect of the collective Jewish condition, Palestinian Arab political activism and nationalist fervour, were far more recent phenomena.
Palestine has been under Ottoman rule for centuries, with the local Arab population becoming accustomed to Turkish rule. Palestinian nationalism in turn was an offshoot of greater pan-Arab sentiments, which were personified in the aspirations of King Faisal. Faisal sought to create a 'Greater Syria', including Iraq, Palestine and the Hejaz; an endeavour which garnered wide-ranging support from many in Palestine.
Interestingly, Faisal also gave his blessing to Zionist efforts for a Jewish homeland, in return for Jewish promises to support him and to persuade Britain to keep its promises to the Hashemites. The issue of Western colonialism and the threat of Zionism saw nationalism in Palestine become more localized, transforming from Pan-Arabism to calls for Palestinian independence.source link
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Moreover, the leadership was generally interested in nationalism only insofar as it didn't conflict with their power bases. This emphasis on tribal loyalties quickly saw the nationalist movement in Palestine become hindered by internal disputes and mired in factionalism. The Nashashibis were seen by the Zionist Organization as more amenable to cooperation, however, they were no less nationalistic read anti-Zionist than than the more outspoken Husseinis.
Hajj Amin's candidacy was strongly supported by the British, who disqualified other candidates and engineered his acquisition of the position. New York: Sheffield Academic Press, Israel, the Impossible Land. Translated by Susan Emanuel.
Stanford Studies in Jewish History and Culture. Paris: Librarie Philosophique J. Vrin, Experience and Expression: Women, the Nazis, and the Holocaust.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press, New Brunswick, N. Yet with a Steady Beat: Contemporary U. Afrocentric Biblical Interpretation. SBL Semeia Studies Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, CHYET, eds. Los Angeles: Skirball Cultural Centers, Rochester, N. Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities.
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Advertisement Hide. International Handbook of Jewish Education. Front Matter Pages i-xxvi. Helena Miller, Lisa D. Grant, Alex Pomson. Pages Front Matter Pages Philosophy of Jewish Education: Some Thoughts. Pluralism in Jewish Education. Visions in Jewish Education.
Related The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israel (Praeger Series on Jewish and Israeli Studies)
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