Causes of Emotion in the Workplace
During dyadic social interaction the EI of both of the persons has an effect to the outcome of the situation. It is suggested that high trait EI of both of the participants of a dyad leads to both, subjectively experienced and expressed, positive emotions. H2 : Actor and partner high trait EI lead to increased orbicularis and decreased corrugator activities during and more positively valenced self-reports after the performance review discussion between the manager and the subordinate. Emotional expressiveness, characterized by, e. Expressiveness has been studied previously, for example, in the context of visionary and charismatic leadership.
Groves concludes on the relationship between EI and visionary leadership that visionary leaders are skilled in communicating a compelling and inspiring vision to the followers. Charismatic leadership is conceptually close to visionary leadership e.
In contrary to rational, transactional leadership, transformational and charismatic leadership theories put more emphasis to emotional and inspirational leadership influence and to charismatic communication style of the leader Bono and Ilies, The positive effects of charismatic leadership on performance and motivation have been highlighted in a meta-analysis by Judge and Piccolo Charismatic leaders are typically described as having special personal qualities that enable them to exert extraordinary influence on the followers Conger and Kanungo, Some of the mechanisms of influencing are suggested to be related to emotional skills.
Considering previous studies, there is resemblance between skills linked to EI and emotional skills attributed to visionary and charismatic leadership. In addition, visionary and charismatic leadership are related to emotional expressivity. It is suggested that the high trait EI participants would be more expressive of both positive and negative valence emotions, as indexed by facial EMG activation; thus, following hypothesis is presented:.
H3a : High trait EI is related to increased emotional expressiveness, as indexed by facial-EMG activation on orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii sites. The status difference between the manager and the subordinate is suggested to have an effect to the emotional expressivity. It must be noted, that not all approach emotions are positive, anger is an example of a negative approach emotion. In addition, the Expressivity Demand Theory LaFrance and Hecht, ; Hess and Bourgeois, states that individuals with higher power have more freedom in choosing their emotional expressions, whether positive or negative.
Thus, we suggest that the leaders are more expressive, and propose the following hypothesis:. H3b : Leaders have more EMG activity on orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii facial muscle areas than followers. Previous studies have linked high trait EI with resting-state left frontal activation e. High ability EI has also been linked to ratings of socially engaging behavior during dyadic interaction Brackett et al. Thus, we suggest the following hypothesis:.
Even though the positive effects of the EI on social interaction are documented in various studies, the actual expressive behaviors by which these effects are manifested during social interaction have not received the same amount of attention.
In the current two studies, the psychophysiological methods are used to investigate facial expressive behaviors, namely smiling and frowning. Building upon the work on negotiation by Der Foo et al.
Emotions in the workplace - Wikipedia
We follow the suggestions of Morris and Keltner in studying particular forms of emotional expression, smiling and frowning, during dyadic interaction between a manager and a subordinate. The hypotheses presented above were studied with two settings. Each leader had a discussion with two followers and facial EMG was collected from all of the participants.
For the second study, the main goal was to examine the hypotheses 2, 3b, and 4. We chose not to use the actual performance review discussion guidelines and forms of the companies, because in the first study this had led the discussants to follow them too strictly, to the cost of a more natural and dialogical interaction. Instead, we presented the leader and the follower with an instruction that encouraged more equal dialog.
In addition, we decided to limit the duration of the discussion to encourage the participants to stay on topic. The methodology for the second study changed; EEG was collected from the participants to assess approach and withdrawal motivations and, due to the added time for placing the electrode caps, only one discussion for each leader was recorded.
Both, the subordinates and the leaders, filled self-reported trait EI questionnaires. Thus it was possible to study actor and partner effects of trait EI using the methodology presented by Kenny et al. The participants were 40 managers 24 female and 78 45 female of their subordinates from five different public or private sector organizations from various fields e.
Each manager had discussions with two of her own subordinates, with the exception of two managers who had, due to scheduling problems, discussion with only a one subordinate. The mean age was In the recruitment process the managers were contacted first and they were asked to recruit two of their own subordinates. In addition, the order of the discussions with the two subordinates was decided by the managers. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Finnish Advisory Board on Ethical Integrity.
The study was not medical research. Thus, the need for formal approval was not required, at the time of conduct, by the ethics review board of our university.
All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The whole measurement session lasted approximately 3 h, consisting of informing the participants about the forthcoming session, filling consent forms, attaching the electrodes and preparing the recording devices, the baseline session, the actual discussion, filling in self-report forms, removing the electrodes, and responding any additional questions. The manager and the first of the subordinates were attached to the measurement devices and this was followed by a 5-min baseline recording.
After this video cameras were turned on and the participants were free to discuss as long as needed. The manager was asked to perform a typical performance review discussion, following the structure and guidelines of the organization. The discussing partners were seated by a table, and a stand for two web-cameras was placed in between them for collecting feedback material for the participants to process during a leadership development program.
Emotions in the workplace
Additional back-up video-cameras were placed next to each participant. The researchers waited in an adjacent room or in the hallway during all the recordings. After the first discussion, the manager could take a short rest and prepare for the second discussion as the second subordinate was being attached to the measurement device. After the discussion, the manager and the subordinate filled a questionnaire assessing their emotions during the discussion.
A paper version of the SAM scale was used. The SAM Valence scale was composed of nine graphic representations of a manikin with facial expressions ranging from a smiling and happy to frowning and unhappy. The SAM Arousal scale ranged from an excited and wide-eyed figure to a relaxed and sleepy figure see, for example, Bradley and Lang, The SAM scales have been widely used in various settings, for example, with pictorial stimuli Backs et al.
For each manager a degree feedback of their trait EI was assessed using the Finnish EI questionnaire Saarinen, ; Salminen et al. The questionnaire was originally designed to consist of seven factors: 1 Perceiving emotions four statements, e. The intra-class correlations for the seven factors were sufficient 0. Feedback was requested from the managers themselves, their subordinates, their peers, and their own managers.
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On average, 5. In the analyses reported here, we have omitted the self-reported ratings of the managers and have used a mean of ratings provided by others. The alpha reliability for the total score of the EI questionnaire in the current sample was 0. The physiological signals were recorded using two Varioport-B portable recording systems Becker Meditec, Karlsruhe, Germany. The raw EMG signal was sampled at Hz, amplified, and frequencies below 57 Hz and above Hz were filtered out, using the analog filter built in the Varioport device. In addition, electrodes were placed to left zygomaticus major muscle area, but due to the artifacts caused by speech actions the results of this signal is not reported here.
Data were analyzed using Matlab v. The EMG signals were rectified and smoothed using a 50 ms moving average. The processed signals were saved using a 10 Hz sampling rate. Mean values of the facial EMG signals for the whole discussion duration were calculated. Finally, these values were natural log-transformed to normalize the distributions. The data were analyzed by the linear mixed-models procedure in SPSS with restricted maximum likelihood estimation and compound symmetry: heterogeneous covariance structure for the residuals.
When testing for the psychophysiological mean values, the mean of respective baseline value was also included in the model. In addition, the facial EMG result suggests that trait EI is positively related to emotional expressiveness, shown as increased positive valence emotional expressions measured on the orbicularis oculi site Hypothesis 3a.
Also, the gender of the dyad members had an effect to the self-reported emotions; most positive valence and happiness was rated in all-female dyads. Forty-four manager—subordinate dyads from eight different private organizations from various fields e. Mean age of the managers was There were 18 female managers and 24 female subordinates.
Sixteen of the dyads were male—male, 14 were female—female, and 14 were mixed gender dyads. The managers were free to choose a willing subordinate for the discussion.
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